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The Dunning-Kruger Effect is a cognitive bias that refers to the tendency of individuals to overestimate their abilities in a particular area while simultaneously underestimating their lack of knowledge or skill in that same area. In other words, people who are less competent in a particular task or domain are more likely to overestimate their competence and believe that they are performing better than they actually are. This bias is named after social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, who first identified the phenomenon in their research in 1999. Their study found that individuals who performed poorly on a series of tasks were more likely to rate their performance as above average or excellent, while those who performed well tended to rate their performance as below average. The Dunning-Kruger Effect can have significant implications in various areas of life, such as education, work, and even politics. It can lead to overconfidence and underpreparedness, which can ultimately hinder performance and lead to negative outcomes. To mitigate the effect, individuals can work to improve their self-awareness, seek feedback from others, and engage in ongoing learning and development.

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